The essential PPAP checklist – what to know about each requirement
September 15, 2023
September 15, 2023
The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is critical to manufacturing. It is a formal process used by manufacturers to ensure that their products meet the requirements of their customers.
The PPAP checklist; which are the essential PPAP requirements?
Although almost any SQE or SQE Manager may know nearly everything about these PPAP requirements, it’s worth remembering and identifying all of them.
- Design Records: The customer typically provides a part drawing for the component when designing. Each feature on this drawing must be carefully identified to match the inspection results. This includes print notes, standard tolerance notes, specifications, and other relevant design-related information.
- Engineering Change Documents: In the event of any changes, a detailed description in the form of a “technical change note” is necessary. This document becomes mandatory only when changes have been made to the original design.
- Customer Engineering Approval: Securing approval from the customer usually involves an engineering trial featuring sample production parts. A “temporary deviation” is often required to communicate the specifics to the customer before the PPAP process concludes. Additionally, your customer may have other specific engineering approval criteria.
- Design FMEA: The Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA) is a specialized application of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) focused on the design phase. It allows the design team to proactively document potential product failures before the design is finalized, mitigating these risks.
- Process Flow Diagrams: The Process Flow Diagram provides a comprehensive view of all the steps required for part manufacturing. It should encompass every critical aspect, from incoming components to measurement and inspection. Aligning the Process Flow Diagram with the control plan and Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) is crucial, and it should account for the flow of non-conforming materials and parts.
- Process FMEA: Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) evaluates each step in the production process, identifying potential issues that may arise during fabrication and assembly.
- Control Plan: The Control Plan mirrors the PFMEA and offers in-depth insights into how potential issues are monitored during incoming inspection, the assembly process, or the final part examination.
- Measurement System Analysis Studies: To meet the customer’s relevant ISO or TS standards, the Measurement Systems Analysis study includes Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (Gauge R&R) for critical characteristics and confirms that gauges used for these measurements are calibrated.
- Dimensional Results: This section lists all test characteristics imprinted on the test mark and their corresponding measurement results. It includes information on product properties, specifications, measurement outcomes, and an assessment of whether the requirements are “fulfilled” or “not fulfilled” (“OK” or “Not OK”). Typically, at least six samples per product undergo testing.
- Material Performance Test Results: A summary of all tests conducted on the part is provided. This summary documents both pass and fail inspection results. It requires customer approval, and the supplier must demonstrate the completion of all necessary tests and any additional test data submitted.
- Initial Process Studies: Generally, this encompasses using Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts for critical characteristics. These studies demonstrate the stability of essential processes and readiness for process validation builds.
- Qualified Laboratory Documentation: This section includes industry certifications for any laboratory involved in validation testing.
- Appearance Approval Report (AAR): The Appearance Approval Report verifies that the customer has inspected the final product and meets all specified appearance requirements, including color, texture, fit, and more.
- Sample Product: Photographs of the production parts are included in the PPAP documentation as details of their storage location.
- Master Sample: A sample part, jointly approved by the customer and supplier, is typically used for operator training in subjective inspections, such as visual or noise assessments.
- Checking Aids: Production relies on checking aids, which are detailed lists of all tools used for inspecting, testing, or measuring parts during assembly. These aids specify the quantity, describe the tool, and outline its calibration schedule.
- Records of Compliance with Customer-Specific Requirements: This part of the PPAP documentation highlights specific industry and customer requirements that must be met.
- Part Submission Warrant (PSW): The Part Submission Warrant is a comprehensive summary of the entire PPAP submission, including drawing numbers and revisions, part information, test results, material declarations, and any deviations from earlier elements.
Not sure of how to manage yourself agains the demands of this PPAP checklist?
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